The Causes of International Terrorism


the Bali Attacks in october 2002
the Bali Attacks in october 2002


Context
Jemaah Islamia (or JI) is the most infamous terror organization inside Indonesia with tendrils as far reaching as Al-Qaeda. the UN defines Terrorism as any “criminal act, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.” JI personnel are committing these acts in accordance with an extremist religious principle.
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In the world post 9/11, terrorist attacks are very highly publicized by the media. This increases the potency of both the attacks and the ideas behind them. Fear and hate are critical weapons in achieving political and ideological policies. But before we delve into the philosophical causes of international terrorism, we first have to understand what our organization is, their purpose, what they have done to achieve these goals, who is involved and finally their links to other international terrorist groups to get an overall picture of the global problem.

Introduction
Jemaah Islamia was founded on Darul Islam ("House of Islam"), which was an extremist ideal in Indonesia beginning in the 40’s. Abu Bakar Bashir and Abdullah Sungkar officially established JI in Malaysia on The 1st of January 1993. This Malaysian excursion was caused buy a court order, instituted by the hard-line Indonesian Suharto Government, which exiled instituted by the hard-line Indonesian Suharto Government.
The Australian Gov's position.
The Australian Gov's position.


Over the last 10 years, Jemaah Islamia has been on the Asia Pacific stage with attacks on ambassadors to other Asian countries (Philippines) and selected international embassies (i.e. Israel, Australia). Many major attacks are attributed to them, including the 2000 Christmas Eve bombings and the devastating 2002 Bali bombings where above 200 people died.


Area of Operation
Area of Operation



Jemaah Islamia’s Cause
The reason for the foundation of JI is officially to establish an “Islamic state in South East Asia, incorporating Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Philippines, Singapore and Brunei," but we believe that they have a secondary purpose of expelling all westerners from southern Asia. The purpose of this would be so they can remove fear of retribution for their terror attacks. They will use fear and hate as the basis of their new “Islamic State,” committing acts of terror on nearby western countries.






Major Attacks
Jemaah Islamia’s first major attack was the Christmas Bombings of December 2000. These attacks caused the death, at a minimum, of 14 people, the destruction of many Christian churches and millions of dollars worth of property. Occurring throughout Indonesia on Christmas Eve between 9 and 10pm, these attacks were attributed to Jemaah Islamia and their associates Al-Qaeda who they are strongly linked to.
After the major threat that foreigners were under was realized, a travel warning was issued by the US State Department imploring westerners to “avoid locations such as bars, restaurants and tourist areas.” This warning was mostly ignored which resulted in the possibility of a major terrorist attack.





Leaders in Jemaah Islamia
Abu Bakar Bashir is believed to be the spiritual head of Jemaah Islamia, although he expressly denies knowledge of such a group. Contradicting this, Bashir was arrested and tried for aiding and abetting treason and was sentenced to four years in prison. There have been many experts who have the opinion that he could have been tried for plotting terrorist attacks and for devising a plan to assassinate the president of Indonesia, Megawati Sukarnoputri. Some specialists go so far as to call the court’s ruling a “bad decision,” stating that the “evidence was certainly sufficient for convicting him at least of being the head of J.I.” This coincides with the “very high” status he is given by the US Department of Defense.
Abu Bakar Bashir
Abu Bakar Bashir
But before Bashir there was a man called Abdullah Sungkar who lead Jemaah Islamia until his death in November 1999. There is not much information on Sungkar but he is known to be a co-founder of JI. His status is high on the US Department of Defense’s website. Even after his death he is inspiring more hatred as he is seen as a martyr.
Abdullah Sungkar
Abdullah Sungkar





Links to Other Terrorist Groups

In 2001 JI was added to a select group of international terrorists, who, according to the UN Security Council Resolution 1267, are connected to the major group Al-Qaeda. Prior to this, JI and Al-Qaeda had issued a statement that they would join together to form “one line, facing its enemies.” This link connects the might of Al-Qaeda to JI, which increased JI’s standing to an international terrorist organization. Sidney Jones, a leading expert on Indonesia and its terror organizations, states that there are “solid links” between Osama bin Laden’s network and Jemaah Islamia (J.I.). According to Sidney R. Jones (“a leading expert on Indonesia and its terror movements”) these links have their foundations when the top JI personnel were trained in Afghanistan allegedly with the top Al-Qaeda leaders over a period of ten years between 1985 and the present. The link between these groups was not only ideological though; it also had its roots in financial advancement too.


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The Origin of JI’s Funding
The origin of the money JI uses to buy their weapons is a question that many have asked over its short and violent history. Some suggest that they have an income supplemented by other terrorist groups, who, at the opportune moment, supply Jemaah Islamiya with weapons, services (eg training, intelligence), money and sometimes manpower. Recently, there have been reports and confessions to support this theory, including some that blatantly state that Al-Qaeda contributed both funds and training for the Bali bombers.

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The Causes of International Terrorism
International Terrorism is caused by the following factors:
-Religion
-Drugs
-Money
-Power
-Freedom (or the escape from oppression)
These are the most powerful motivating factors of the modern world. a combination of these elements can be mixed in different proportions to cause the person(or group) to commit terrorism.





Time Line


Bibliography:
http://www.cfr.org/publication/6228/jones.html?breadcrumb=%2Fbios%2F3348%2F%3Fpage%3D33#
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ig.htm wed 13/5 10:05
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jemaah_Islamiyah wed 13/5 10:20
http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/ji.cfm wed 13/5 10:20
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition_of_terrorism wed20/5
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megawati_Sukarnoputri
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Qaeda
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Bakar_Ba%27ashir
http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/profiles/abu_bakar_bashir.htm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3157478.stm#map
http://212.150.54.123/spotlight/det.cfm?id=543
http://www.heritage.org/Research/nationalSecurity/images/CDA08-11_map2.gif