Due 27/5/09

Basque homeland and freed

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna

(ETA)


external image ETAlogo.jpg


Terrorism Definition;

“The use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political, religious or social aims”




Basque Homeland and Freedom/ Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)?

Mike Vince Moin

&

Mitch Maguire



Basque Fatherland and Liberty is a group of Spanish activists who are seeking to become an independent state in the Basque region of Spain. Founded in 1959 by young national activists during the Franco dictatorship.
ETA is one of Europe’s last terrorist groups. Lately the group has been thought to have been weakening through capture of leaders, activists, and followers who are splitting between violent resistance and the push of political negotiations.
Spain has resisted ETA creating a independent Basque homeland within Spain.
Whilst not being very well known throughout the globe ETA is still pushing for its independent homeland, and is still seen as a terrorist organization by the United States, European Union and United Nations. According to our definition of terrorism ETA is governed a terrorist organisation because it undertakes violence as a method of intimidation for the aim of reaching political goals for independence.

In our terrorism unit, we have decided on 5 base questions to use to investigate our chosen terrorism group Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA). Our investigative questions are;

• What is ETA?
• What they want to achieve
• History of the ETA
• Why ETA have done what they have done- ideology
• ETA in today’s world.


What ETA want to achieve

Since the creation of ETA in the Franco dictatorship, for fifty years ETA has tried achieve full independence from the Spanish country for the 4 northern Basque provinces Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, Alava, and Navarra in the mountainous north, eastern area of Spain and the south western French areas of Labourd, Basse-Navarra and Soule. ETA has been trying to become a independent state through their tactics of bombings and assinations. The political party Batasuna has ties with ETA since 1979. Pushing for independence along with ETA, although denying ever having ties with ETA the Spanish government declared the party illegal because of evidence showing the party was financing ETA with public money.
external image Basque.gif
In April 2006 ETA announced a permanent ceasefire between themselves and the Spanish government, trying to move to a more democratic process in the Basque regions for independence.
But, in June 2007 ETA announced that it was ending its fifteen month long peace agreement and warned governments that it would “be active on all fronts to defend Basque homeland”. Blaming the present prime minister of Spain José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, of abandoning the peace agreement and instead instigated tortures and arrests against Basque people.


History of the ETA

Euzkadi Ta Askatasun or “ETA” was founded in 1959 by activists seeking to establish an independent Basque homeland spanning the border region of northern Spain and south-western France. Infused with Marxist principles, which has 10 codes which create the principles. The group has since been held responsible for a number of bombings, shootings and kidnapping or killing of high-profile European government figures. Its primary targets are Spanish and French government interests, and its activities have claimed over 800 lives in four decades.
Though believed to be a small terrorist group (with approximately 20 main activists and several hundred supporters), In December 2001, the European Union declared ETA a "terrorist organisation". ETA members are believed to have received training in Lebanon, Libya, South Yemen and Nicaragua, as well as to have fled to Cuba. The group also allegedly maintains close ties with the Irish Republican Army (IRA) through the two groups' political wings.
The group used to have a very hierarchical organization with a leading figure at the top, delegating into three substructures:
• Logistical
• Military
• Political
Reports from the Spanish and French police point towards significant changes in ETA's structures in recent years. ETA has divided the three substructures into a total of eleven leaders. The change was a response to recent captures, and possible infiltration, by the different law enforcement agencies. The ETA's intention is to disperse its members and reduce capture and valuable information leaking to law agencies.
ETA has been the cause of some of Spain’s most devastating attacks killing over 800 people since it began in 1959 and destroying infrastructure.
Below, are just some of the well know attacks by ETA.


August 2 1968, ETA executed their first killing by murdering Meliton Manzanas whilst returning to his home, in retaliation for the torture of arrested ETA members. Meliton was a intense opponent of Basque separatism, and especially ETA. Meliton was shot several times by a single individual. There were only 2 witnesses, Meliton’s wife, and doughter inside his family apartment.
Following the murder, Madrid declared exception to the Basque Provinces and began rounding up suspects for the murder. 16 members of ETA were eventually arrested and charged for the murder.
external image meliton.jpg-Meliton Manzanas

In 1973 ETA assinated the Spanish prime minister Admiral Carrero Blanco by placing explosives on the route of Carrero’s car. Carrero was the man under General Franco, the dictator of Spain, and was to take over when Franco stepped down.
external image luis-carrero-blanco.jpg-Admiral Carrero Blanco
Many from the outside governments applauded the act by ETA, because it was seen as a devastating blow to the centre of Franco’s dictatorship.
For ETA Blanco's murder was in direct retribution for the arrest of several officials, including some Basques who were to be put on trial for their lives. But of course, it was a revenge of sorts for the longterm unjust treatment and control of the Basque region.


In 2004 ETA executed its detailed coordinated bombings on the commuter train in Madrid, Spain. At first, authorites believed it was Al-Qaeada who had planned this attack, later finding that it was the ETA activists responsible for the 191 deaths, and over 2000 people.
Although it was believed to be Al-Qaeada, the Spanish government blamed ETA, and stating it was a violation of the ceasefire. But months after it was decided it was a joint operation between ETA and Al-Qaeada. Journalist Encarnación Valenzuela stated “There are too many coincidences”.

external image 610x.jpg-Madrid Train Bombing 2004


A car bomb explodes in Madrid traffic during rush hour, destroying fifteen vehicles, damaging nearby buildings and injuring 99 and four seriously. The explosion occurred close to the headquaters of Spanish banking group Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA). A senior Science and Technology Ministry official was believed to have been the target of ETA’s attack, but escaped with minor injuries, after ETA members misjudged the timing of the car passing the bomb. Police arrested two people nearby who were carrying explosives, a pistol and wigs after the blast, believed to have been ETA members.

external image _41472412_madrid_ap.jpg-Madrid car bombing

Less than 24 hours later, Judge Jose Maria Lidon is shot dead in Bilbao. Lidon had sentenced six ETA sympathisers to jail in 1987 ETA was blamed for the murder, for speculations come after two people were arrested with ties wit ETA after the car bombing the previous day. Authorities sensed it to be ETA after the weapon that killed judge Jose Maria Lidon was 9mm pistol’s used by the murderers which is favoured by ETA for killings.
external image das.jpg-Judge Jose Maria Lidon


Why ETA have done what they have done- ideology

ETA based their ideology on the Marxist principles developed by Karl Marx in the 1800’s. Marxism involves 10 principles of differing sub perspectives. The 10 principles are;
1. Social progress is driven by progress in the material, productive forces a society has at its disposal (technology, labour, capital goods, etc.)
2. Humans are inevitably involved in production relations (roughly speaking, economic relationships or institutions), which constitute our most decisive social relations.
3. Production relation’s progress, with a degree of inevitability, following and corresponding to the development of the productive forces.
4. Relations of production help determine the degree and types of the development of the forces of production. For example, capitalism tends to increase the rate at which the forces develop and stresses the accumulation of capital.
5. Both productive forces and production relations progress independently of mankind's strategic intentions or will.
6. The superstructure -- the cultural and institutional features of a society, its ideological materials -- is ultimately an expression of the mode of production (which combines both the forces and relations of production) on which the society is founded.
7. Every type of state is a powerful institution of the ruling class; the state is an instrument which one class uses to secure its rule and enforce its preferred production relations (and its exploitation) onto society.
8. State power is usually only transferred from one class to another by social and political upheaval.
9. When a given style of production relations no longer supports further progress in the productive forces, either further progress is strangled, or 'revolution' must occur.
10. The actual historical process is not predetermined but depends on the class struggle, especially the organization and consciousness of the working class. Reference-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_materialism


ETA In Today’s World

ETA have been focusing on mainly the Spanish side of the Basque region fighting for autonomy, because for many years France has a safer Place for ETA, but changed when the French and Spanish governments joined together to fight ETA.
The organisation finances its campaign through kidnapping, bank robbery and a so-called "revolutionary tax" on Basque businesses.
Lately they have been pushing for peace agreements to try and move their political position forward to better their success of a independent Basque State. The video below is of ETA members releasing a statement of cease fire to help their cause and relations with Spanish governments.



Bibliography

Date: 13/5/09
Marxism: Basic Principles... (Preview document)
http://www.cfr.org/publication/9271/
http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/eta.cfm
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/eta.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jurdan_Martitegi
http://wapedia.mobi/en/ETA#1.

Date 18/5/09

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3500728.stm
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/58/ETAlogo.jpg
http://hir.harvard.edu/index.php?page=article&id=1354

Date 19/5/09

http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2307/stories/20060421002105600.htm
http://journals.worldnomads.com/safetyhub/post/6239.aspx

Date 19/5/09

http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/1079014398490_63/
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/nov/28/spain.gilestremlett1
http://www.cyberboxingzone.com/cbzforum/showthread.php?t=8288
http://www.emergency-management.net/eta_di.htm
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41472000/jpg/_41472412_madrid_ap.jpg
http://images.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_YMqV1ja_lFQ/RzD8G4GQrcI/AAAAAAAAA00/QYoUmskQ_1g/s400/LidonAten08.jpg&imgrefurl=http://zapaterias.blogspot.com/2007/11/jose-mara-lidn-corbi-in-memoriam.html&usg=__YtujvQulpY6_nKB3amEBWAvXHlA=&h=288&w=272&sz=8&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=imsx_jCNka8btM:&tbnh=115&tbnw=109&prev=/images%3Fq%3DJose%2BMaria%2BLidon%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=kD7FJ0SIB6cC&pg=PA182&lpg=PA182&dq=Meliton+Manzanas+murder&source=bl&ots=_Zpt9kTEul&sig=L0IDy2BPi2a8v4cC_5vfgiMGAKM&hl=en&ei=mc4TSsGJDJK6tAOClbX0DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_materialism

Date 22/5/09

http://archives.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/europe/08/08/Spain.ETA.History/